Hudson set sail on his fourth expedition, aboard the Discovery, in 1610. It would be his last.
On this trip, Hudson and his crew sailed down what is now Hudson Bay into James Bay, where the water route ended. By the time the frigid winter arrived, the crew was fed up. They were tired, cold, and starving. Some of the crew argued with Hudson, who refused to return home. He wanted to continue searching for a new route to Asia. The crew eventually did sail back to England—but only after forcing their captain off the ship.
No one knows for sure what happened to Hudson. There are no records of his life after the mutiny. One theory is that he survived by joining up with local Native peoples. But many experts, including Mancall, say Hudson likely died during the next winter.
Though Hudson never found what he was looking for, Mancall says he was still a success.
“Many people think Hudson was a failure,” Mancall explains. “But he was a courageous explorer, willing to take risks.”